Mechanical, Electrical, Pneumatic and Hydraulic – Comparison of Four Drive Modes

Feb 07
2017

(I) Machinery
1. Gear transmission:
1) Category: flat gear drive, space gear drive.
2) Features:
advantage
Applicable to the peripheral speed and power range; transmission ratio accurate, stable, high efficiency. ; High reliability, long life. ; Can be achieved parallel axis, arbitrary angle intersection axis Hydraulic Marking Machines and any angle between the axis of the transmission
Shortcomings
Requiring a higher manufacturing and installation accuracy, higher cost. ; Not suitable for long-distance transmission between the two axes.

hydraulic drilling machine

3) Involute standard gear
The basic size of the name of the top tooth circle; root circle; indexing circle; touch number; pressure angle.
2. Turbine scroll drive:
It is suitable for the movement and power between two axes which are vertical and do not intersect.
1) Features:
Advantages Large transmission ratio. ; Compact structure.
Disadvantages of axial force, easy to heat, low efficiency. ; Only one-way transmission.
The main parameters of the turbo-worm drive are: modulus; pressure angle; worm wheel indexing circle; worm indexing circle; lead; worm gear teeth; worm head;
3. belt drive:
Including the driving wheel, driven wheel;
1) for the two axes parallel to the same direction of rotation, known as the opening movement, the center distance and the angle of the package.
2) with the cross-sectional shape of the type can be divided into flat belt, V belt and special belt three categories.
3) the application is focused on: transmission  CNC machine ratio calculation; with the stress analysis and calculation; single V-band with the allowable power.
4) belt transmission characteristics:
advantage:
It is suitable for the transmission with large center distance between two shafts. The belt has good flexibility and can absorb shock. It can prevent the other parts from being damaged when it is overloaded. The structure is simple and the cost is low.
Disadvantages:
Transmission of the larger size; to be tensioning device; due to slipping, can not guarantee a fixed transmission ratio; belt with a shorter life; transmission efficiency is low.
4. Chain drive
Including active chain, driven chain; ring chain.
Chain drive and gear drive compared to its main features: manufacturing and installation of low accuracy requirements; large distance from the center, the transmission structure is simple; instantaneous chain speed and instantaneous transmission ratio is not constant, the transmission stability is poor.
5. Wheels
1) The train is divided into two types of fixed-axis and epicyclic.
2) The ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft’s angular velocity (or speed) is called the transmission ratio of the gear train. Is equal to the ratio of the product of the number of teeth of all driven gears in each pair of meshing gears to the number of teeth of all driving gears.
3) In the epicyclic gear train, the gears whose axis position changes, that is, gears which are both rotating and revolving, are called planetary wheels. The gears with fixed axis position are called center wheel or sun gear.
4) The transmission ratio of the epicyclic gear train can not be directly calculated by calculating the transmission ratio of the fixed-axle gear train. It is necessary to use the principle of relative motion to convert the epicyclic gear train into the imaginary one by using the relative velocity method (or inverse method) Fixed-axis gear train.
5) The main features of the train wheel:
Suitable for transmission between the two shafts far away; can be used as a transmission to achieve variable speed transmission; can obtain a larger transmission ratio; to achieve movement synthesis and decomposition.
(Ii) Electrical
1, high precision: Servo motor as a power source, by the ball screw and synchronous belt and other components of the structure is simple and highly efficient transmission. Its repeatability error is 0.01%.
2, save energy: the work cycle can be decelerated during the release of energy into electrical energy re-use, thereby reducing operating costs, connected to the power equipment is only required for hydraulic power equipment, 25%.
3, precision control: According to the set parameters to achieve precise control, high-precision sensors, measuring devices, computer technology support, can greatly exceed other control methods can achieve control accuracy.
4, to improve the level of environmental protection: the use of energy varieties to reduce and optimize the performance of pollution sources reduced, noise reduction, for the plant’s environmental protection work, to provide a better guarantee.
5, to reduce noise: the operating noise value of less than 70 decibels, about the hydraulic drive injection molding machine noise value of 2 /
6, cost savings: This machine in addition to the cost of hydraulic oil and cause trouble, there is no hard or soft hose, no need to cool the hydraulic oil, a significant reduction in the cost of cooling water.

drilling sheet metal

(Iii) Air pressure
advantage
1) The air as the working medium, the working medium is relatively easy to use after the air discharged to the atmosphere, easy to handle, compared with the hydraulic transmission does not have to set the recovery of fuel tanks and pipes.
2) The viscosity of the air is very small (about one-tenth of the hydraulic oil viscosity), the loss is very small, so easy to focus on gas supply, long-distance transport. External leaks do not pollute the environment as much as hydraulic drives do.
3) Compared with the hydraulic transmission CNC High Speed Drilling Machine, pneumatic transmission action quickly, fast response, easy maintenance, working media clean, there is no media deterioration and other issues.
4) The work environment adaptability, especially in flammable, explosive, dust, magnetic, radiation, vibration and other harsh working environment, than the hydraulic, electronic, electrical control superior.
5) low cost, overload can automatically protect.
Shortcomings
1) because the air has a compressibility, so the stability of the working speed slightly. But the use of gas-liquid linkage will be more satisfactory results.
2) due to low working pressure (usually 0.31.0MPa), and because the structure size should not be too large, the total output force should not be greater than 10 ~ 40kN.
3) noise, high-speed exhaust to add a muffler.
4) Pneumatic device in the gas signal transmission speed within the speed of sound than electrons and the speed of light is slow, therefore, the pneumatic control system should not be used for components of the series too many complex circuits.
Hydraulic
advantage
1) from the structure point of view, the unit weight of the output power per unit size and output power in the four types of transmission is the force of pressure Fang Qunfang, a great moment of inertia than the same power in the transmission case, the hydraulic drive Small size, light weight, small inertia, compact structure, flexible layout.
2) From the work performance point of view, speed, torque, power can be adjusted steplessly, fast response, quick change and speed, speed range, speed range up to 100: l to 2000: 1; Fast, good control, adjustment is relatively simple, more convenient operation, effort, easy to match with the electrical control, and the CPU (computer) connection, easy to automate.
3) from the use of maintenance point of view hole punching machine, self-lubricating components, and easy to achieve overload protection and packing, safe and reliable; components easy to achieve serialization, standardization, universal.
4) All hydraulic technology equipment safety and reliability.
5) Economy: Hydraulic technology has strong plasticity and variability, can increase the flexibility of flexible production, and easy to change and adjust the production process, hydraulic components, relatively speaking, the manufacturing cost is not high, adaptability is relatively strong.
6) hydraulic easy and computer control and other new technologies combine to form a “machine – electric – liquid – light” integration has become the trend of world development, easy to digital.
Disadvantages:
Anything is divided into two, hydraulic transmission is no exception:
1) hydraulic transmission due to the relative motion of the surface inevitably there is leakage, while the oil is not absolutely incompressible, coupled with elastic deformation such as tubing, hydraulic transmission can not be strictly transmission ratio, and therefore can not be used for processing such as threading machine tools Of the inline transmission chain.
2) there is along the oil flow along the loss, local losses and leakage losses, transmission efficiency is low, not suitable for long-distance transmission.
3) in high temperature and low temperature conditions, the use of hydraulic transmission has some difficulties.
4) In order to prevent oil leakage and to meet certain shearing machine performance requirements, high precision hydraulic components manufacturing, to the use and maintenance of certain difficulties. 5) The failure is not easy to check, especially the hydraulic technology is not popular units, this contradiction often hinders the further application of hydraulic technology. Hydraulic equipment maintenance needs to rely on experience, training of hydraulic technicians for a long time.

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